Others include the Rotunda of Mosta in Malta (1833). The present arrangement is from 1811, designed by Antonio Muñoz. Look how rich the surface is. A projecting portico or porch, faced by a façade consisting of 8 columns at the front and two at the sides. The original Pantheon was built by Agrippa, Augustus’ most successful general, in 27 BC. The roof of the porch was originally held up and reinforced by bronze trusses, which were removed by pope Urban VIII of the Barberini family to cast cannon for the protection of Castel Sant’Angelo (another building closely associated with Hadrian), and replaced with timber beams. Portico/Porch.  His uncertainty strongly suggests that "Pantheon" (or Pantheum) was merely a nickname, not the formal name of the building. Due to the removal of the Roman sculpture on the inside, however, we cannot be sure exactly which gods the temple was dedicated to. Even by the year 200, there was uncertainty about the origin of the building and its purpose: Agrippa finished the construction of the building called the Pantheon. Dio appears to be the only near-contemporaneous writer to mention the Pantheon. To the sides are paintings (1661) by Francesco Cozza, one of the Virtuosi: Adoration of the Shepherds on left side and Adoration of the Magi on right. , The pediment was decorated with relief sculpture, probably of gilded bronze. The Pantheon (UK: /ˈpænθiən/, US: /-ɒn/; Latin: Pantheum,[nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). On the right wall is the Incredulity of St Thomas (1633) by Pietro Paolo Bonzi. The choir was added in 1840, and was designed by Luigi Poletti. The only local Italian stone in the original decorations of the Pantheon is the fine white marble from Carrara in Tuscany, which was used for the Corinthian capitals and the small pediments of the aedicules. On the right wall is the canvas Emperor Phocas presenting the Pantheon to Pope Boniface IV (1750) by an unknown. The extraordinarily precise details and elegant finishing of the ancient Roman workmanship can thus still be admired in the Pantheon.  It is the only masonry dome to not require reinforcement. This wall is surmounted by a hemispherical dome with a large central hole (the “oculus”). It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating his famous baldachin above the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but, according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice. In the walls at the back of the Pantheon's portico are two huge niches, perhaps intended for statues of Augustus Caesar and Agrippa.  In fact, the concept of a pantheon dedicated to all the gods is questionable. A projecting portico or porch, faced by a façade consisting of 8 columns at the front and two at the sides. Adytons (shrines recessed into the wall) and coffers (sunken panels) cleverly reduce the weight of the dome, as did a lightweight cement made of pumice used in the upper levels. It was about the earthly sphere meeting the heavenly sphere. The above-mentioned relationship between the circle and the square, which underlies the basic geometry of the entire building, is also mirrored by the floor decorations that still maintain the original design (although much of the marble has either been replaced or relaid).  However, analysis of the fusion technique confirmed that these are the original Roman doors, a rare example of Roman monumental bronze surviving, despite cleaning and the application of Christian motifs over the course of centuries. Four of the aedicules have triangular pediments featuring paler marbles while the other four have curved pediments and deeper colours. Finished by Hadrian but not claimed as one of his works, it used the text of the original inscription on the new façade (a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome; the only building on which Hadrian put his own name was the Temple to the Deified Trajan). On the first niche to the left of the entrance is an Assumption (1638) by Andrea Camassei. , The portico-and-dome form of the Pantheon can be detected in many buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries; numerous government and public buildings, city halls, university buildings, and public libraries echo its structure. This occasioned the famous Pasquinade Quod non fecerunt Barberi, fecerunt Barberini (“What the barbarians did not do, the Barberini did”).  This reduced the weight of the roof, as did the elimination of the apex by means of the oculus.. The niche opposite the doorway is the most impressive, as it is the only one that extends above the level of the first internal cornice (like the arch above the doorway). In Piazza della Maddalena continue in the same direction along Via del Pantheon (the street on the left). In 609, Emperor Phocas gave it to Pope Boniface IV, who consecrated it, dedicated it to St. Mary and all the Christian martyrs, and renamed it Santa Maria ad Martyres.  On its consecration, Boniface placed an icon of the Mother of God as 'Panagia Hodegetria' (All Holy Directress) within the new sanctuary.. No obvious set plan Free-standing columns at the front then semi-engaged columns in the porch Unique with the dome and an oculus. The main building (known as the “rotonda”) with a circular ground plan and a thick windowless wall in which there are 7 large niches at ground level (8 if one includes the entrance). After crossing Via del Corso take the first turning on the left (Via del Leoncino) which then becomes Via di Campo Marzio. The top of the rotunda wall features a series of brick relieving arches, visible on the outside and built into the mass of the brickwork. We are dedicated to your game. It is widely accepted that Pantheon was dedicated to all the gods, as its name suggests (from the Ancient Greek Pan "all" + Theon "gods"). Normally, temples were dedicated to one or two gods or, rarely, three gods. It is an early example of Neoclassicism, with a facade modelled after the Pantheon in Rome surmounted by a dome that owes some of its character to Bramante’s “Tempietto”. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Carracci, the composer Arcangelo Corelli, and the architect Baldassare Peruzzi. The name Pantheon means “Temple dedicated to all gods ”. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio. How to get there by Metro (underground): The nearest metro station to the Pantheon is Piazza di Spagna on the A (red) metro line. Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been the site of several important burials.  Ziegler tried to collect evidence of panthea, but his list consists of simple dedications "to all the gods" or "to the Twelve Gods", which are not necessarily true pantheons in the sense of a temple housing a cult that literally worships all the gods.  Thus, it was necessary to either drag them or to move them on rollers to the construction site. Pantheon: A cathedral dedicated to the martyrs - See 78,212 traveler reviews, 37,319 candid photos, and great deals for Rome, Italy, at Tripadvisor. DR. STEVEN ZUCKER: And also in some way about human perception.  Godfrey and Hemsoll maintain that the word Pantheon "need not denote a particular group of gods, or, indeed, even all the gods, since it could well have had other meanings. From the floor up to the first cornice: layers of cement packed with travertine and volcanic tuff fragments. It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. After 150 meters turn right at the Banca Etruria bank and then immediately left after a few meters. Behind the tomb is the statue known as the Madonna del Sasso (Madonna of the Rock) so named because she rests one foot on a boulder. RESTITVERVNT). This description was widely accepted until the late 20th century. During storms, a drainage system below the floor handles the rain that falls through the oculus.  After being unloaded near the Mausoleum of Augustus, the site of the Pantheon was still about 700 metres away. We want to provide you with only the best equipment at the most affordable price. Duration: 3 hours | Linguages: English, German, Spanish, French, Italian, Duration: 35 minutes | Languages: Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, Selection of the best hotels and apartments near the Pantheon, in the heart of Rome. Weddings are also held there from time to time. and been its image through the centuries. Most historians claim that Emperor Augustus right hand, Agrippa, built the first Pantheon in 27 BC. Mark Wilson Jones has attempted to explain the design adjustments carried out in relating the porch to the dome, arguing that the Pantheon's porch was originally designed for monolithic granite columns with shafts 50 Roman feet tall (weighing about 100 tonnes) and capitals 10 Roman feet tall in the Corinthian style. The term ‘pan’ means all and ‘theon’ means the gods in Greek. His fiancée, Maria Bibbiena is buried to the right of his sarcophagus; she died before they could marry. The first niche to the right of the entrance holds a Madonna of the Girdle and St Nicholas of Bari (1686) painted by an unknown artist. The Pantheon is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris..  The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43 metres (142 ft).. 2. It was a rectangular building dedicated to all the Gods of the Greco-Roman Pantheon. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. In fact, it has been in continuous use since it was first built, which is probably one of the reasons it is so intact. Subsequent chapters present the Pantheon as it existed during the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries, and finally the Modern Age. Much of the first half of the book is dedicated to presenting the construction of the current Pantheon and its probable methods, materials, labor requirements, and architectural aspects.  The only other loss has been the external sculptures, which adorned the pediment above Agrippa's inscription. The first chapel on the right, the Chapel of the Annunciation, has a fresco of the Annunciation attributed to Melozzo da Forlì. Original temple built around 29-19BC by Marcus Agrippa Current temple built and dedicated by Emperor Hadrian in roughly 125 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. Ziolkowski argues that Lanciani's initial assessment is still supported by all of the finds to date, including theirs; furthermore he expresses skepticism because the building they describe, "a single building composed of a huge pronaos and a circular cella of the same diameter, linked by a relatively narrow and very short passage (much thinner than the current intermediate block), has no known parallels in classical architecture and would go against everything we know of Roman design principles in general and of Augustan architecture in particular. Mary and the Martyrs,” commonly referred to as “Santa Maria Rotonda.” The reason it has been preserved so well is because of this conversion and its continuous use as a result of this. Discover the history of the monuments, itineraries, events and exhibitions related to archeology and cultural heritage in Rome. The two plaques commemorate Maria Bibbiena and Annibale Carracci. In the columns of the other alcoves this stone alternates with ivory-coloured and purple-veined pavonazetto from Turkey. For some reason (possibly a shipwreck) these columns failed to arrive, and the builders had to use the smaller columns that still exist today. ", Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. , The building is cylindrical with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. His uncertainty strongly suggests that "Pantheon" (or Pantheum) was merely a nickname, not the forma… BETH HARRIS: The Pantheon originally contained sculptures of the gods, of the deified emperors, we think. The 4,535-tonne weight of the Roman concrete dome is concentrated on a ring of voussoirs 9.1 metres (30 ft) in diameter that form the oculus, while the downward thrust of the dome is carried by eight barrel vaults in the 6.4-metre-thick (21 ft) drum wall into eight piers. The Pantheon at Rome is the most preserved and influential building of ancient Rome.. Oculus of the Pantheon. This idea is supported by the recent discovery of an ancient set of full scale plans and templates for the portico of the Pantheon cut into the limestone paving next to the Mausoleum of Augustus, only 600 meters to the north. In fact the dimensions of these templates correspond to that of the original larger columns for the portico. Scriptores Historiae Augustea, Hadrianus XIX. The first Pantheon was built during the years 27-25 BC by Marcus Agrippa. , Among the most notable versions are the church of Santa Maria Assunta (1664) in Ariccia by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, which followed his work restoring the Roman original, Belle Isle House (1774) in England and Thomas Jefferson's library at the University of Virginia, The Rotunda (1817–1826).  This substitution was probably a result of logistical difficulties at some stage in the construction. At its thickest point, the aggregate is travertine, then terracotta tiles, then at the very top, tufa and pumice, both porous light stones. The Pantheon is full of such devices – for example, there are relieving arches over the recesses inside – but all these arches were hidden by marble facing on the interior and possibly by stone revetment or stucco on the exterior. The interior of the dome was possibly intended to symbolize the arched vault of the heavens. The emperor Hadrian (A.D 117-138) built the Pantheon to replace Augustus' friend and Commander Marcus Agrippa's Pantheon of 27 B.C. The dome features sunken panels (coffers), in five rings of 28. a titular church for a cardinal-deacon. The confraternity continued to draw members from the elite of Rome's artists and architects, and among later members we find Bernini, Cortona, Algardi, and many others. The Pantheon is made perfectly harmonious by the fact that the distance from the floor to the top of the dome is exactly equal to its diameter. The wall of the rotunda is 6 meters thick and is punctuated by seven deep niches or alcoves, the ceilings of which are supported by two Corinthian columns. It really was about the divine. , The stresses in the dome were found to be substantially reduced by the use of successively less dense aggregate stones, such as small pots or pieces of pumice, in higher layers of the dome. In fact, many famous Italian artists have been buried at the Pantheon, including Raphael, an Italian architect and painter. " Whatever the cause of the alteration of the inscription might have been, the new inscription reflects the fact that there was a change in the building's purpose.. The emperor held hearings and gave judgment in the Pantheon. The building's consecration as a church saved it from the abandonment, destruction, and the worst of the spoliation that befell the majority of ancient Rome's buildings during the early medieval period. Pantheon Hockey is a field hockey equipment and clothing company based in Manchester, UK. Pantheon, temple dedicated to all the gods. The third niche holds the mortal remains – his Ossa et cineres, "Bones and ashes", as the inscription on the sarcophagus says – of the great artist Raphael. Built by Agrippa between 25 and 27 BC the Pantheon was a temple dedicated to the twelve Gods and to the living Sovran. Player or spectator, Pantheon Hockey is here for you. Until the 5th century, it was a temple dedicated to all the Roman gods. 3 The exact age of the pantheon remains unknown. Much fine external marble has been removed over the centuries – for example, capitals from some of the pilasters are in the British Museum. A competition was held to decide which architect should design it. The same pieces of formwork could have been reused as new layers and sections of concrete were laid next to each other. The bust of Raphael (1833) is by Giuseppe Fabris. The bust is a portrait of Cardinal Agostino Rivarola. The Pantheon of Rome is the best-preserved major edifice of ancient Rome and one of the most significant buildings in architectural history. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. Mark and Hutchison estimated that, if normal weight concrete had been used throughout, the stresses in the arch would have been some 80% greater. Would love your thoughts, please comment. According to historians, it was built to house the statues of many gods of pagan Rome, but the name may also derive from the fact that the dome refer tothe sky. Pope Urban VIII (1623 to 1644) ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. Her argument is particularly interesting in light of Heilmeyer's argument that, based on stylistic evidence, Apollodorus of Damascus, Trajan's architect, was the obvious architect.  It seems likely that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae (public temples).  Cassius Dio, a Roman senator who wrote in Greek, speculated that the name comes either from the statues of many gods placed around this building, or from the resemblance of the dome to the heavens.  Finite element analysis of the structure by Mark and Hutchison found a maximum tensile stress of only 0.128 MPa (18.5 psi) at the point where the dome joins the raised outer wall. Because of this, the interior floor is equipped with drains and has been built with an incline of about 30 centimetres (12 in) to promote water runoff.. The Historia Augusta says that Hadrian dedicated the Pantheon (among other buildings) in the name of the original builder (Hadr. Following Hadrians usual practice of dedicating rebuilt buildings and monuments in honour of the original dedicator, the Pantheon is dedicated to Marcus Agrippa and the prominent inscription on the porch façade reads: Originally, the Pantheon was a Roman temple dedicated to worshipping the planetary gods (the Sun, the Moon, Venus, Saturn, Jupiter, Mercury and Mars) in Roman times. The thickness of the dome varies from 6.4 metres (21 ft) at the base of the dome to 1.2 metres (3.9 ft) around the oculus. Lise Hetland argues that the present construction began in 114, under Trajan, four years after it was destroyed by fire for the second time (Oros.
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